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A fire-fighting system is probably the most important building services, because its purpose is to protect human life and property, strictly in that order. It consists of three fundamental parts:
A large tank of water in tanks, either underground or on top of the building, called fire storage tanks
A specialized pumping system, and Sprinkler
A large network of pipes terminating in either hydrants or sprinklers (almost all buildings require both)
A fire hydrant is a vertical steel pipe with an outlet, to which two fire hoses are stored (a hydrant is called a vertical tube in America). During a fire, firefighters go out, break the pipes, attach one to the outlet, and open manually so that the water rushes out of the nozzle of the pipe. The quantity and speed of water is so great that it can hit the fireman holding the pipe if it is not standing in the correct direction. As soon as the fireman opens the hydrant, the water will gush and the sensors will detect a drop in pressure in the system. This pressure drop will trigger the fire pumps to turn on and start pumping water at a considerable flow.
A sprinkler is a nozzle attached to a connected pipes installed just below the roof. Each sprinkler has a small glass bulb with a liquid in it. This bulb normally blocks the flow of water. In a fire, the liquid in the bulb will become hot. It will widen and break the glass bulb, removing the obstacle and spraying water from the sprayer. The main difference between a fire hydrant and a sprinkler is that a sprinkler will automatically fire in a fire. A fire hydrant must be operated manually by trained firefighters – it can not be used by lay people. A sprinkler is usually activated very quickly in a fire – perhaps before the fire station has been informed of the fire – and is therefore very effective in extinguishing a fire in the early stages, before it develops into a fire. A great fire. For this reason, a watering system is considered very good at extinguishing fires before they spread and become unmanageable. According to the NFPA of America, hotels with sprinklers suffered 78% less material damage caused by fire than hotels without a study in the mid-1980s.
The amount of water in the fire storage tanks is determined by the level of risk of the project under consideration. Most building codes have at least three levels, namely Light Hazard (such as schools, residential buildings and offices), Ordinary Hazard (like most factories and warehouses) and High Hazard (places that store or use Flammable materials such as foam factories, aircraft hangars, paint plants, fireworks factories). The relevant building code indicates which type of structure belongs to each category. The amount of water to be stored is usually given in hours of pumping capacity. In a one-hour system, the tanks are large enough to supply the fire with water for a period of one hour when the fire pumps are turned on. For example, building codes may require that fire protection systems have a capacity of one hour and a high risk of 3 or 4 hours of capacity. Water is usually stored in underground concrete tanks. It is essential to ensure that this water tank is always full, so that it must not have outlets outside those that lead to the fire pumps. These tanks are separated from the tanks used to provide water to the occupants, which are usually called domestic water tanks. Designers will also try to ensure that the water in the fire reservoirs does not stagnate and develop algae that could clog the pipes and pumps, making the system unnecessary in a fire.