FIRE Hydrant System
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A fire-fighting system is probably the most important building services, because its purpose is to protect human life and property, strictly in that order. It consists of three fundamental parts:
A large tank of water in tanks, either underground or on top of the building, called fire storage tanks
Fire pumps are usually housed in a pumping room very close to the fire tanks. The key is that the pumps should be located at a level just below the bottom of the fire tank, the pump takes water from the tank that flows with the presure. most important systems, there must be emergency pumps in the event of a failure of the main pump. There is a main electric pump, a electric backup pump, and a second backup pump works with diesel, in case the electricity fails, which is common. Each of these pumps is capable of pumping the required amount of water by itself – they are individual in capacity. There is also a fourth type of pump called jockey pump. It is a small pump attached to the system that is continuously activated to maintain the correct pressure in the distribution systems, which is normally 7 Kg / cm2 or 100 psi. If there is a small leak somewhere in the system, the jockey pump will turn on to compensate. Each jockey pump will also have a backup. The pumps are controlled by pressure sensors. When a firefighter opens a fire hydrant, or when a sprinkler is lit, water springs from the system and the pressure drops. The pressure sensors will detect this fall and turn on the fire pumps. But the only way to turn off a fire pump is for a firefighter to do it manually in the pump room. This is an international code of practice designed to prevent pumps from turning off due to malfunction of the control system. The capacity of the pumps is determined by considering a number of factors, some of which are:
The area covered by hydrants and sprinklers
The number of hydrants and sprinklers
The supposed operating area of the nozzles
The type and layout of the building.
The distribution system
The distribution system consists of pipes made of steel or galvanized steel painted red. These can be welded together to make secure joints, or tied with special clamps. When they run underground, they are wrapped with a special coating that prevents corrosion and protects the pipe. There are essentially two types of distribution systems. Automatic wet systems are networks of water-filled pipes connected to pumps and storage tanks, as described heretofore. Dry automatic systems are networks of pipes filled with pressurized air instead of water. When a firefighter opens a fire hydrant, pressurized air rushes first. Pressure sensors in the pump room will detect a pressure drop and start the water pumps that will pump water to the system and reach the fire hydrant that the fireman keeps after an interval of a few seconds. This is done wherever there is a risk of freezing fire hoses if filled with water, which would render them unnecessary in a fire. Some building codes also allow for manual distribution systems that are not connected to fire pumps and fire tanks. These systems have an entrance for firefighters to pump water into the system. Once firefighters pump water into the distribution system, firefighters can open fire hydrants in the right places and start directing the water to the fire. The input that allows the engine water from the fire in the distribution system is called a Siamese connection. In high-rise buildings, it is mandatory that each staircase have a wet riser, a vertical fire hose with a hydrant on each floor. It is important that the distribution system is designed with a main ring, a main loop that is connected to the pumps so that there are two ways for the water to flow in case one side is blocked.
In more complex and hazardous installations, high and medium speed water spray systems and foam systems (for hazardous chemicals) are used. The foam acts as an insulating blanket on top of a burning liquid, cutting off its oxygen. Special areas such as server rooms, whose contents are damaged by water, use gas suppression systems. In these, the gas is pumped into the pipelines in the room to cut off the oxigen supply to the fire.