A fire-fighting system is probably the most important building services, because its purpose is to protect human life and property, strictly in that order. It consists of three fundamental parts:
A large tank of water in tanks, either underground or on top of the building, called fire storage tanks
When designing a firefighting system, remember the following:
Underground Tanks: Water must flow from the municipal supply first to fire-extinguishing tanks, then to domestic water tanks. This is to prevent stagnation in the water. The overflow from fire fighting to domestic tanks must be at the top, so that the fire-fighting tanks remain full at all times. Normally, fire fighting water should be separated into two tanks, so that if one is cleaned there is water in the other tank in case of fire.
It is also possible to have a system in which the fight against fire and domestic water are in a common tank. In this case the outlets of the fire pumps are located at the bottom of the tank and the outlets of the domestic pumps must be located at a sufficient height from the floor of the tank to ensure that the total quantity of water required for fire Is never evacuated by domestic pumps. The connection between the two tanks is via the suction manifold, a large diameter pipe that connects all the fire pumps in the pump chamber. It is therefore not necessary to provide a sleeve in the common wall between the two fire-fighting tanks.
The connection of each tank to the suction header must be placed in a sump; If the connection is placed 300mm above the bottom of the tank without a sump, then a 300mm high water basin will remain in the tank, which means that the entire volume of the tank water will not be usable . Ideally, the bottom of the fire hall should be located about 1 m below the bottom of the tank. This arrangement ensures positive suction for the pumps, which means they will always have water. All pumping chambers must have a soil drainage system; The pumps are still leaking. The best way to do this is to slope the soil to a sump, and install a dehydration pump if the water can not flow by gravity. In cases where there is an extreme shortage of space, submersible pumps may be used for firefighting. This will eliminate the need for a fire hall.
Create a special tree for the wet risers next to each staircase. Approximately 800 x 1500 mm should suffice. It is best to provide this on the main landing rather than the average landing, as the pipes will reach further on the floor.